New Boston Air Force Station is a United States Air Force facility located in Hillsborough County in south central New Hampshire. It occupies more than 2,800 acres (11 km2) in three towns: New Boston, Amherst, and Mont Vernon. It was established in 1942 as a practice area for bombers and fighter planes from nearby Grenier Army Air Field (now Manchester–Boston Regional Airport). Starting in 1959, it was turned into a satellite-tracking station. During the late 1970s and early 1980s it was known as Detachment 1 of the 2014th Communications Squadron located at Hanscom Air Force Base in Bedford, Massachusetts.

New Boston AFS is operated by the 23d Space Operations Squadron (23 SOPS), a geographically separated unit (GSU) of the 50th Network Operations Group, 50th Space Wing, Schriever Air Force Base, Colorado.